Autism is caused by Nature or Nurture?

“Autism Spectrum Disorder is a group of related developmental disabilities caused by a problem with the brain that affects a child’s behavior social and communication skills. Autism can include developmental delays, behavioral problems, and cognitive disabilities”(Cutter). I was interested in Autism Spectrum Disorder because I want to understand the impact of nature and nurture in a autistic person’s life.Last, I wanted to see how their experience can change/shape their thinking. My topic is related to The Teenage Brain by Temple Grandin because she explains the nature and nurture theory in both normal and autistic brains. It is also related to The Teenage Brain by Frances E. Jensen because this explains a nurture experience between 2 institutions and how one is more well off. Although, normal and autistic people are similar, autistic people have more difficulties with the environment and need more help. Why does the autistic brain need more nurture than normal brain?

 

The overall environment has a big effect on autistic people. For instance, in source #1 it states, “Autism as a disease is the tip of the iceberg, reflecting how our environment exposures, how, negatively impact/impairs human genetic activity”(Gaither).This evidence shows what kind of impact the environment has on autistic people and how sometimes the environment can cause of how autistic people act in public. People have to be careful with pesticides, plastics, metals, air pollution because sometimes the things that we use can cause autism. In source #2 it says, “Autistic people have no control over their behavior in the sense that they do not choose to manifest their symptoms”(Cutter). We have to be careful with autistic people  because autistic people do not like a lot of things like bright light, some of them do not like hugs and noises, so people have to respect their decisions. 1 in 88 children are affected with autism spectrum disorder in the U.S. Sometimes autism runs through the family genes can be linked to autism. An example is “identical twins have noted when one twin has the disease in the vast majority of cases, so does the other”(Gaither).

 

Autistic brains and non autistic brains can have similarities but have more differences. Abnormalities is one of the causes of autism to appear in people. In source #2 it says, “Abnormalities in the structure of the higher order cerebral cortex of the autistic brain exist such as spacing between the gyri in the frontal lobes and the number of neurons with in them”(Cutter). Another cause for autism is based on the immune system “Certain molecules within the immune  system that may impact negatively the developmental fetal brain, causing autism”(Gaither). The cause for the fetal brain can be potentially associated with drugs because it increases autism risk. This evidence shows that the immune system can be one of the causes why autism happens in specific people. In the normal brain is very different because the “Normal brain has 500 genes which those regulate hearing, language and the processing and interpreting sounds”(DeNoon). The brain defect only happens 75% of people with autism. So basically normal brains are suppose to have 500 genes and so since autistic people have less genes in is difficult to socialize and speak to people but something that they can do well is processing and interpreting sounds because in the movie Temple Grandin she is very good at memorizing and remembering sounds even though she is autistic.

 

In addition, to individuals with autism, there are many biological and behavioral factors that we can attempt to support their overall development. Autistic people have a lot of problems they include “developmental delays, behavioral problems, cognitive disabilities, medical problems such as seizure disorder, social and emotional issues and regression of abilities in all areas”(Cutter). Autistic people may not like a lot of  things but they are very smart and are very friendly with people. Autistic people can also have their own careera like become a scientist, nurse, astronaut etc. Some behavioral problems that autistic people have is “ lack of social development or interest in people or inability to recognize social cues, inability to comprehend facial recognition or to recognize emotions in a face, inability to comprehend language or loss of ability to communicate, flapping of the hands or repetitive motion with other parts of the body, including banging one’s head or spinning in circles and apparent disdain for affection or being held, especially as an infant”(Cutter). Some biological problems that autistic people have is “slow or no developmental growth, lack of or slowed motors kills development, abnormal size brain, certain genetic indicator, other abnormalities in the brain [“Autistic brains also show abnormality in white matter, complete regression (can also be behavioral), and seizure disorder (is seen in 30% of Autistic children, although seizure disorder alone does not indicate a child has autism)”(Cutter). Biological problems can be very similar to behavioral problems but can be more complex. This problems have to be seen because these are very important problems that happen to autistic people and if people can solve them that can be great.

 

Although, normal and autistic people are similar, autistic people have more difficulties with the environment and need more help. I personally think my research was important to know how autism develops and how much they need help. I thought it was also important to see how much help autistic people have because sometimes people help non autistic people than help truly the ones that need help. Something else   I also think that my research has and hasn’t changed. I think it has changed because now I know how and why autistic develops. I also think that it hasn’t changed too because I knew that autistic people need more attention and care then non autistic.

 

Works Cited

Autism and non-autistic brain differences isolated for first time. Science News, 20 March, 2015, https://www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2015/03/150320091311.htm. Accessed 12 March, 2018.

 

Cutter, Carolyn. Autism: Nature vs. Nurture. Blog Post, 13 June 2011, http://psychologicalperspective.blogspot.com/. Accessed 08 March, 2018.

 

DeNoon, Daniel. Autism Brains are Alike; Very Different from Normal Brains. Web md, 25 May, 2011, https://www.webmd.com/brain/autism/news/20110525/autism-brains-alike-very-different-from-normal-brains#1. Accessed 12 March, 2018.

 

Gaither, Kecia. Autism: Who is the Culprit?Mother Nature or Mother Nurture? Huffpost, 06 Dec ,2017, http://www.huffpost.com/kecia-gaither-md-mph-facog/autism_b_5201406.html. Accessed 08 March, 2018.

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